The following table identifies the specific inspection items for cranes as well as a brief description and purpose to help the inspector to have a better understanding of what and why the item is being inspected.
Inspection Items and Description
ITEM DESCRIPTION / PURPOSE
(1) Manufacturer's operating and Maintenance Manuals Manufacturer's operating and maintenance manuals shall accompany all mobile hoisting equipment. These manuals stet forth specific inspection, operation and maintenance criteria for each mobile crane and lifting capacity.
(2) Guarding All exposed moving parts such as gears, chains, reciprocating or rotating parts are guarded or isolated.
(3) Swing Clearance Protection Materials for guarding rear swing area.
(4) High-Voltage Warning Sign High-voltage warning signs displaying restrictions and requirements should be installed at the operator's station and at strategic locations on the crane.
(5) Boom Stops Shock absorbing or hydraulic type boom stops are installed in a manner to resist boom overturning.
(6) Jib Boom Stops Jib stops are restraints to resist overturning.
(7) Boom Angle Indicator A boom angle indicator readable for the operator station is installed accurately to indicate boom angle.
(8) Boom Hoist Disconnect, Automatic Boom Hoist Shutoff A boom hoist disconnect safety shutoff or hydraulic relief to automatically stops the boom hoist when the boom reaches a predetermined high angle.
(9) Two-Blocking Device Cranes with telescoping booms should be equipped with a two-blocking damage prevention feature that has been tested on-site in accordance with manufacturers requirements. All cranes hydraulic and fixed boom used to hoist personnel must be equipped with two-blocking devices on all hoistlines intended to be used in the operation. The anti-two blocking device has automatic capabilities for controlling functions that may cause a two-blocking condition.
(10) Power Controlled Lowering Cranes for use to hoist personnel must be equipped for power controlled lowering operation on all hoistlines. Check clutch, chains, and sprockets for wear.
(11) Leveling Indicating Device A device or procedure for leveling the crane must be provided.
(12) Sheaves Sheave grooves shall be smooth and free from surface defects, cracks, or worn places that could cause rope damage. Flanges must not be broken, cracked, or chipped. The bottom of the sheave groove must form a close fitting saddle for the rope being used. Lower load blocks must be equipped with close fitting guards. Almost every wire rope installation has one or more sheaves – ranging from traveling blocks with complicated reeving patterns to equalizing sheaves where only minimum rope movement is noticed.
(13) Main Hoist and Auxiliary Drums System Drum crushing is a rope condition sometimes observed which indicates deterioration of the rope. Spooling is that characteristic of a rope which affects how it wraps onto and off a drum. Spoiling is affected by the care and skill with which the first larger of wraps is applied on the drum. Manufacturer's criteria during inspection usually specify:
Minimum number of wraps to remain on the drum.
Condition of drum grooves
Condition of flanges at the end of drum.
Rope end attachment.
Spooling characteristics of rope.
(14) Main Boom, Jib Boom, Boom Extension Boom jibs, or extensions, must not be cracked or corroded. Bolts and rivets must be tight. Certification that repaired boom members meet manufacturers original design standard shall be documented. Non-certified repaired members shall not be used until recertified.
(15) Load Hooks and Hook Blocks Hooks and blocks must be permanently labeled with rated capacity. Hooks and blocks are counterweighted to the weight of the overhaul line from highest hook position. Hooks must not have cracks or throat openings more than 15% of normal or twisted off center more than 10o from the longitudinal axis. All hooks used to hoist personnel must be equipped with effective positive safety catches especially on hydraulic cranes.
(16) Hydraulic Hoses Fittings and Tubing Flexible hoses must be sound and show no signs of leaking at the surface or its junction with the metal and couplings. Hoses must not show blistering or abnormal deformation to the outer covering and no leaks at threaded or clamped joints that cannot be eliminated by normal tightening or recommended procedures. There should be no evidence of excessive abrasion or scrubbing on the outer surfaces of hoses, rigid tubing, or hydraulic fittings.
(17) Outriggers Outrigger number, locations, types and type of control are in accordance with manufacturer's specifications. Outriggers are designed and operated to relieve all weight from wheels or tracks within the boundaries of the outriggers. If not, the manufacturer's specifications and operating procedures must be clearly defined. Outriggers must be visible to the operator or a signal person during extension or setting.
(18) Load Rating Chart A durable rating chart(s) with legible letters and figures must be attached to the crane in a location accessible to the operator while at the controls. The rating charts shall contain the following:
A full and complete range of manufacturer's crane loading ratings at all stated operating radii.
Optional equipment on the crane such as outriggers and extra counterweight which effect ratings.
A work area chart for which capacities are listed in the load rating chart, i.e. over side, over rear, over front.
Weights of auxiliary equipment, i.e. load block, jibs, boom extensions.
A clearly distinguishable list of ratings based on structural, hydraulic or other factors rather than stability.
A list of no-load work areas.
A description of hoistline reeving requirements on the chart or in operator's manual.
(19) Wire Rope Main hoist and auxiliary wire rope inspection should include examining for
External damage from crushing, kinking, cutting or corrosion.
(20) Cab Contains all crane function controls in additional to mechanical boom angle indicators, electric wipers, dash lights, warning lights and buzzers, fire extinguishers, seat belts, horn, and clear unbroken glass.
(21) Braking Systems Truck cranes and self-propelled cranes mounted on rubber-tired chassis or frames must be equipped with a service brake system, secondary stopping emergency brake system and a parking brake system. Unless the owner/operator can show written evidence that such systems were not required by the standards or regulations in force at the date of manufacture and are not available from the manufacturer. The braking systems must have been inspected and tested and found to be in conformance with applicable requirements.
Crawler cranes are provided with brakes or other locking devices that effectively
hold the machine stationary on level grade during the working cycle. The braking
system must be capable of stopping and holding the machine on the maximum grade
recommended for travel. The brakes or locks are arranged to engage or remain
engaged in the event of loss of operating pressure or power.
(22) Turntable/Crane Body Make sure that the rotation point of a crane gears and rollers are free of damage, wear and properly adjusted and the components are securely locked and free of cracks or damage. The swing locking mechanism must be functional (pawl, pin) and operated in the cab.
(23) Counterweight The counterweight must be approved and installed according to manufacturer's specifications with attachment points secured.